Methodologies in foreign languages teaching
By Ingrid López Cuéllar
Academic year: 2011- 2012
There are several methods of language teaching, and over time these have been the subject of significant changes, mainly due to the need to improve the way we communicate. From 1880 until 1980, language teachers have been involved in what many experts call pedagogy research. The main objective of those studies was to find a perfect method of education for all. One of the main causes of these major changes has certainly been the development of media such as internet, that with its fast accessibility allows anyone to be able to communicate, causing everyday language to experience a micro-evolution. Another key point in the evolution of language has been the growing phenomenon of globalisation and, its influence on the business world, which has led over the years to the creation of laws of the market, bringing major changes in everyday communication. These and other aspects have led linguists to develop more concrete study methods designed for specific recipients.
Language teaching should be considered as a constantly evolving process, so what we believe to be a static study field actually changes and evolves in response to the needs outlined above. For this reason, the present study aims to examine in depth the methods and the main approaches to language teaching, their main objectives and the subsequent changes that have led many of these methods to become obsolete. This research will also examine the currently used methods and approaches.
The main purpose of this project is to provide a critical assessment of the role of teaching, the study methods and approaches in the educational process, but it is also an account of the main methods of teaching foreign languages that are in use today.
The different methods of language teaching
The different methods refer to a specific design and a system based on a theory of foreign language teaching. These systems contain specific details of content, roles and concrete procedures for teachers and students, as well as teaching techniques. The teacher’s role is to execute the method and enforce its rules meticulously.
Below are the methods we will be describing in this study:
– The Grammar-translation method
– The Audio-Linguistic method
– The direct method
– The Silent Way
– The Suggestopedy
– The Total Physical Response
The different approaches to language teaching
We can define approaches as a set of beliefs and principles that can be used in the foundations of language teaching. Below are listed the approaches we describe in this study:
– Community Language Learning
– The Whole Language
– The theory of multiple intelligences
– The neuro – linguistic programming
– The Lexical Approach
– The Competency – Based on Language Teaching
-The Communicative Language Teaching
– The natural approach
– Cooperative learning
– The Content and Language Integrated Learning
– The oral approach